The sterilization our pets is a surgery that is performed frequently, but still, it is needed to follow some steps to reduce the risk and complications that entails any surgery.
Within this phase are all procedures that do before the surgery so this is the maximum safe as possible and are similar in male and female.
First of all it is recommended that the animal carries a fasting 9-12 hours before being anesthetized. Without this fast is very likely that the anesthetic make the vomit once is anesthetized, which could develop aspiration pneumonia, ie the contents of vomiting occur in airways causing severe pneumonia. This is due to the lack of control of the larynx during anesthesia.
It is also very important to do some presurgical testsin order to have a safe anesthesia. The blood analysis tells us if our pet has any organ pathology that is not yet showing clinical symptoms, eg , kidney disease, liver infections … An electrocardiogram shows the heart function or if there is any alteration that anesthesia is contraindicated. In addition we can also do chest radiographs and abdominal ultrasound to rule out masses, abscesses or abnormalities of organs that analytics does not show us. All these tests help to differentiate us from animals that are not fit to be subjected to anesthesia and surgery during these procedures or if we have to take some special precautions, use a specific type of drug …
A few minutes before the surgery animals are anesthestetised using intravenous or inhalatorious drugs (analgesics and sedatives). Once the animal is asleep is time to shave the surgical area and make an aseptic cleaning.
- Male (castration)
They surgery is quite simple. In the case of cats incision is made in the scrotum and it can be a central or 2 on top of each testicle. It affects the skin and the tunica vaginalis surrounding the testicle causing it to leave its usual location. Then the spermatic cord is binded and after checking not bleeding, cut it. Once the two testes are done, we can re-stitch the layers incidided.
The neutering of dogs is very similar to the cat with the only difference that we make the incision in the preescrotal area, ie between the foreskin and the normal position of the testicles to prevent excessive swelling of the scrotum once the surgery is done.
- Female (ovariohisterectomia)
In the female surgery is a bit more complicated since it has to affect the abdomen to look for insertions of the ovaries, tie them and remove them. Then the uterus is tied and cut at the cervix level. Once this is done, is verified that anything bleeds and the abdomen is closed with three layers: muscle, subcutaneous fat and skin.
Once neutered, both females and males, they should be treated with painkillers and antibiotics to prevent infection and pain, they should clean the wound with saline solution or disinfectant solutions and must wear an isabellin collar to avoid they lick the stiches. In the case of females and male dogs, 10 days after surgery the stiches should be removed.