Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite called Leishmania infantum type that is transmitted through sand flies , which are insects like mosquitoes . This disease can give many different clinical signs , from skin problems to kidney failure or liver failure . Some animals are able to be infected but do not develop the disease while having an immune system that keeps it at bay . A dog diagnosed early has a good prognosis if they follow an appropriate treatment . This means that , although the disease is chronic and has no cure in some cases clinical signs may disappear completely and can get to stop the treatment. However it is always best to do a good prevention.
When we talk about the prevention of leishmaniasis have two ways to carry it out : reduce the risk of bites using repellents or phlebotomy helping to improve our pet ‘s immune system against the parasite that causes the disease.
– Scalibor neck has repellent effect on phlebotomy transmitting Leishmania 6 months . Also also also prevents infestations of fleas and ticks for 6 and 4 months respectively. Can be administered from 7 weeks of age.
Advantix – pipettes : Removes and prevents infestations of fleas, lice and tick if it is administered once a month , but if used every two weeks , also repels phlebotomy . Can be administered from 7 weeks of age and can not be used in cats.
– Vaccines: Leishmania as most acts by generating antibodies against an infectious agent , in this case, the parasite that causes the disease. Before administering this vaccine for the first time recommended a ” quick test ” of the disease , which is a blood test that tells us if our pet has been in contact with the parasite or not. If that is not parasitized vaccination protocol consists of 3 doses of vaccine separated by 3 weeks the first year and annual revaccination . The minimum age to vaccinate a dog are 6 months. Given the time of most activity phlebotomy and vaccine begins to be effective at 4 weeks after the 3rd dose , the best month to start administration is March . We have seen that a vaccinated animal is about 4 times less risk of disease clinically is not an animal .
– Leisguard : This drug acts on the immune system of the animal and can help reduce the risk of infection or active Leihsmaniosis control the progression of the disease when it is in very early stages . When used as a preventative is recommended to administer it orally for 30 consecutive days making rounds every 4 months , starting the season of greatest risk : from May to June . In very mild cases of infection can be administered as a treatment for 1 month and repeat it four months later. Can be used in puppies from 6-8 weeks of age.
The ideal in terms of prevention would be to combine the different systems because none of them is 100% effective . For example , although vaccinate our pets against leishmania , we should continue with the prevention of phlebotomy .
– Quick Test : Is the diagnostic method of Leishmania faster. Involves depositing a drop of blood or serum of the animal in a snaptest , and 10 minutes to the hospital , do you know whether or not the dog is infected by Leishmania . The only problem with this test is that a small percentage of animals, a negative result may be false and therefore required further analyzes to diagnose it . Moreover , being a qualitative and quantitative analysis , we used to track the cases in which the disease is confirmed .
– Serology Is an analysis that quantifies the antibodies that have the dog in front of the Leishmania parasite , in other words , if your immune system has been in contact with this parasite and tried to fight it. This analysis is done in external laboratories and therefore take longer to learn the results , but on the other hand , being a quantitative method , we can know the severity of the infection and to monitor its evolution. In addition, there are less chances that we scored as negative an animal that actually have the disease.
– PCR : A analtítica carried out in a laboratory detects external part of the genome of Leishmania spp. To make the different samples can be used as bone marrow , skin, lymph nodes , blood, scraped conjunctival bodies … as the animal has most affected . This diagnostic method is usually only used in cases where many have clinical evidence that the animal can suffer from the disease but that the rapid test or serology Dongui to us as weak positive or negative .